Sitatunga - Tragelaphus spekei

Sitatunga are swamp antelope. They are adapted to survive where few other antelope could. Their long, splayed hooves allow them to walk across islands of floating vegetation and wet terrain without sinking. They are strong swimmers and can even hide underwater with only their nostrils (and maybe eyes) showing.

Sitatunga-A“Where I live”

Sitatunga live in secluded, thickly vegetated, muddy swamps and marshes throughout central Africa. See them at the Zoo in the African Journey, across from the flamingos.

“How I live there”

Sitatunga tend to be solitary animals. Females may form loose herds but males keep to themselves. Sitatunga feed on bulrushes, sedges and leaves of bushes growing in the swamp or near the forested edge. They also eat fallen fruit and chew the bark of some trees and bushes. They rest on dry mounds in the swamp, turning in circles to trample the grass into a comfortable mat.

“Making my mark”

Through repeated use, sitatunga carve regular, tunneled pathways through the tall reeds of their swamp habitat. To those who know how to look, they quietly advertise their presence in an area.

Sitatunga-B“What eats me”

When on dry land where they are less agile, sitatunga are vulnerable to predators such as leopards, lions and wild dogs. They will take to the water to evade such predators, staying submerged with only their nostrils showing. They also have to be wary of pythons and crocodiles, as well as human hunters who trap sitatunga with relative ease in snares set along their well-traveled pathways.

Raising young

Male and female sitatunga come together temporarily to form mating pairs. A female prefers to give birth on a dry mound in the swamp where vegetation has been trampled down into a mat. Female sitatunga usually give birth to a single offspring at a time. The sitatunga calves will remain on the mat for about a month, with occasional visits from its mother for suckling. It will continue to nurse for four to six months but becomes independent after that. Young sitatunga separate from their mothers sooner than do most antelope.


Sitatunga-COutside of protected areas, sitatunga are vulnerable to over-hunting and habitat loss, as people drain and develop swamp land. Currently, however, sitatunga are not classified as threatened or endangered.

The Maryland Zoo has helped to produce and maintain both the studbook and the Population Management Plan (PMP) for sitatunga in AZA-accredited institutions. The PMP contains breeding recommendations that will foster a healthy, genetically diverse and demographically stable population of sitatunga in North America.

Quick Facts:

central Africa

least concern

semi-aquatic swamps, marshes, flood plains

Diet- Herbivore:
reeds, sedges, grasses, leaves, fallen fruit


Captive: 17-20 yrs
Wild: 10-15 yrs

single young per birth

male: 60-67 in (152-170 cm)
female: 53-61 in (135-155 cm)

male: 154-275 lb (70-125 kg)
female: 110-126 lb (50-57 kg)

Conservation at Home

Penguin Encounters





Elephant Program


Animal Experiences

Rise & Conquer